When God appeared to Moses at the burning bush, and told Moses that he was sending him to deliver the children of Israel from Egyptian bondage, God said to Moses that he and the elders of Israel were to come before Pharaoh and say the following to him:

The Lord God of the Hebrews hath met with us: and now let us go, we beseech thee, three days’ journey into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to the Lord our God. ~ Exodus 3:18

God then tells Moses the following:

AND I AM SURE that the king of Egypt WILL NOT LET YOU GO, no, not by a mighty hand. And I WILL STRETCH OUT MY HAND, AND SMITE EGYPT WITH MY WONDERS which I will do in the midst thereof: and AFTER THAT HE SHALL LET YOU GO. ~ Exodus 3:18-20

Notice that God says to Moses: “I am sure that the King of Egypt will not let you go.”

These words suggest that Pharaoh had a free will, and his will was to keep the children of Israel as slaves in Egypt. God knew exactly what was in Pharaoh’s heart, for God knows the hearts of all men. God knew that Pharaoh would not be compliant and therefore, God chose to deliver the children of Israel by hardening Pharaoh’s heart.

If Pharaoh did not have a free will, there would have been no resisting of God’s will by Pharaoh. The narrative of the confrontation between Moses and Pharaoh reveals God hardening Pharaoh, by his miracles, and breaking the power of Pharaoh’s pride to accomplish his purpose.

God hardened Pharaoh by confrontation: by Pharaoh’s refusal to submit to God. This speaks strongly to the truth of free will.

And the Lord said unto Moses, When thou goest to return into Egypt, see that thou do all those wonders before Pharaoh, which I have put in thine hand: but I WILL HARDEN HIS HEART, THAT HE SHALL NOT LET THE PEOPLE GO. And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the Lord, Israel is my son, even my firstborn: And I say unto thee, Let my son go, that he may serve me: and IF THOU REFUSE to let him go, behold, I will slay thy son, even thy firstborn. ~ Exodus 4:21:22

Notice that at the outset of God’s confrontation with Pharaoh, God warns Pharaoh of what will happen if he refuses to let the people of Israel go. God says the very same thing to Pharaoh again just prior to the second plague.

And the Lord spake unto Moses, Go unto Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the Lord, Let my people go, that they may serve me. And IF THOU THOU REFUSE to let them go, behold, I will smite all thy borders with frogs… ~  Exodus 8:1-2

In verse 8, Pharaoh called Moses and Aaron and asked them to pray to the Lord to take away the frogs, and made the following promise: Entreat the Lord, that he may take away the frogs from me, and from my people; AND I WILL LET THE PEOPLE GO, that they may do sacrifice unto the Lord. ~ Exodus 8:8b

Pharaoh did not keep his word.
And the Lord did according to the word of Moses; and the frogs died out of the houses, out of the villages, and out of the fields. And they gathered them together upon heaps: and the land stank. But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite, HE HARDENED HIS HEART, and hearkened not unto them; as the Lord had said. Exodus 8:13-15

Notice that God answered Moses’ prayer on the behalf of Pharaoh, and Pharaoh reneged on his promise to let the people go. The text above says: Pharaoh hardened his heart.

Throughout the Exodus account we see God hardening Pharaoh’s heart, as well as Pharaoh himself hardening his heart. With each plague, Pharaoh’s heart continued to harden. During the 3rd plague, we read the following:

Then the magicians said unto Pharaoh, This is the finger of God: AND PHARAOH”S HEART WAS HARDENED, and he hearkened not unto them; as the Lord had said. And the Lord said unto Moses, Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh; lo, he cometh forth to the water; and say unto him, Thus saith the Lord, Let my people go, that they may serve me. ELSE, IF THOU WILL NOT LET MY PEOPLE GO, behold, I will send swarms of flies upon thee, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thy houses: and the houses of the Egyptians shall be full of swarms of flies, and also the ground whereon they are. ~ Exodus 8:19-21

How did God hardened Pharaoh’s heart? It was by the plagues he set on the land of Egypt. God confronted Pharaoh, and Pharaoh resisted.

During the 4th plague Pharaoh again promised he would let the people go (Exodus 8:25-28) but after God causes this plague to cease, Pharaoh again hardened his heart.

And Moses said, Behold, I go out from thee, and I will entreat the Lord that the swarms of flies may depart from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people, tomorrow: BUT LET NOT PHARAOH DEAL DECEITFULLY ANY MORE IN NOT LETTING THE PEOPLE GO TO SACRIFICE TO THE LORD. And Moses went out from Pharaoh, and entreated the Lord. And the Lord did according to the word of Moses; and he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people; there remained not one. AND PHARAOH HARDENED HIS HEART AT THIS TIME ALSO, neither would he let the people go. ~ Exodus 8:29-32

Notice that the scriptures above say PHARAOH hardened HIS HEART at this time ALSO. There was a repeated hardening of Pharaoh’s heart by Pharaoh himself.

Exodus 9:1-7 covers the 5th plague. Notice verses 1-3 carefully:

Then the Lord said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh, and tell him, Thus saith the Lord God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they may serve me. For IF THOU REFUSE to let them go, and wilt hold them still, Behold, the hand of the Lord is upon thy cattle which is in the field, upon the horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, upon the oxen, and upon the sheep: there shall be a very grievous murrain (an infectious disease). ~ Exodus 9:1-3

Notice that God again appeals to Pharaoh’s stubbornness: “if thou refuse.”

Pharaoh had a hard heart and in his stubbornness, he continued to refuse to obey God. The more Pharaoh resisted, the harder his heart became, and this is exactly how God hardened him. With every plague, we see Pharaoh hardening his heart, which, again, is how God hardened him.

And the Lord said unto Moses, Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the Lord God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they may serve me. For I will at this time send all my plagues upon thine heart, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people; THAT THOU MAYEST KNOW THAT THERE IS NONE LIKE ME IN ALL THE EARTH. For now I will stretch out my hand, that I may smite thee and thy people with pestilence; and thou shalt be cut off from the earth. And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up, for to shew in thee my power; and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth. AS YET EXALTEST THYSELF against my people, that thou wilt not let them go? Behold, tomorrow about this time I will cause it to rain a very grievous hail, such as hath not been in Egypt since the foundation thereof even until now. ~ Exodus 9:12- 18

Pharaoh was raised up by God without even knowing it, and God used him as vessel of wrath to demonstrate his glorious power when he delivered the children of Israel out of Egyptian bondage.

This does not suggest that God made Pharaoh an evil person before the foundation of the world, but rather that Pharaoh (being an evil person) was sovereignty used by God as a vessel of wrath for his own purposes.

In Romans 9, Paul makes appeal to the God’s word to Pharaoh and says: For the scripture saith unto Pharaoh, Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up, that I might shew my power in thee, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth. Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth. ~ Romans 9:17-18

A few verses later Paul says: What if God, willing to shew his wrath, and to make his power known, ENDURED WITH MUCH LONG SUFFERING the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction: ~ Romans 9:22

If God created people to be evil and they had absolutely no choice in the matter, why would God “endure them with much long suffering?”

The answer to this question can be found in the 3 previous verses:

19 Thou wilt say then unto me, Why doth he yet find fault? For who hath resisted his will?

20 Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus?

21 Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour? ~ Romans 9:19-21

What does this mean?

Does it mean that God arbitrarily decides who will follow truth and who will rebel, and therefore, he makes some people good and some people evil?

No! Not at all.

If we desire to rightly interpret Paul’s words regarding the potter and the clay, we need to allow scripture to interpret it for us.

Consider God’s words to the prophet Jeremiah:

1 The word which came to Jeremiah from the Lord, saying,


3 Then I went down to THE POTTER’S HOUSE, and, behold, he wrought a work on the wheels.

4 And the vessel that he made of clay was marred in the hand of the potter: so he made it again another vessel, AS IT SEEMED GOOD TO THE POTTER to make it.

5 Then THE WORD OF THE LORD came to me, saying,

6 O house of Israel, cannot I do with you as this potter? saith the Lord. Behold, as the clay is in the potter’s hand, SO ARE YE IN MY HAND, O house of Israel.

7 At what instant I shall speak concerning a nation, and concerning a kingdom, to pluck up, and to pull down, and to destroy it;


9 And at what instant I shall speak concerning a nation, and concerning a kingdom, to build and to plant it;


In the context the potter that God used to speak to Jeremiah, the vessel was “marred” in the potters hand. One translation says: the jar he was making did not turn out as he had hoped, so he crushed it into a lump of clay again and started over.

Another translation says: But the jar that he was making from the clay became flawed in the potter’s hand, so he made it into another jar, as it seemed right for him to do.

The Potter was the one in control and when the vessel did not turn out as the Potter would have desired, he used it by reshaping it as he desired.

According to God’s words to Jeremiah, this is how God as “the Potter” had dealt with Israel. Though he had called them to be a holy nation, they were marred in his hand and now had become a vessel of his wrath. In Jeremiah 7:29, God refers to Judah as “the generation of his wrath.”

Yet they were originally chosen by God to be a holy people – that is what God told them he had called to be after he delivered them from Pharaoh.

3 And Moses went up unto God, and the Lord called unto him out of the mountain, saying, Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel;

4 Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles’ wings, and brought you unto myself.

5 Now therefore, IF YE WILL OBEY MY VOICE INDEED, AND KEEP MY COVENANT, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine:

6 And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.

7 And Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and laid before their faces all these words which the Lord commanded him. ~ Exodus 19:3-7

Even though the descendants of Jacob were called to be holy, they had now become a generation of wrath. Yet God endured their rebellion, with much long suffering, calling them to repentance.

Israel was called to be a holy people, and they were called to make the name of the Lord glorious throughout all the earth. Yet the went backward and failed to become who God called them to be.

Even though Israel failed to become the holy nation God had called them to be, God accomplished his purpose of having a people according to his grace, and he did this through Israel in the person of Jesus Christ, the Messiah!

30 What shall we say then? That the Gentiles, which followed not after righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith.

31 But Israel, which followed after the law of righteousness, hath not attained to the law of righteousness.

32 Wherefore? BECAUSE THEY SOUGHT IT NOT BY FAITH, but as it were by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumblingstone;

33 As it is written, Behold, I lay in Sion a stumblingstone and rock of offence: and WHOSOEVER BELIEVETH ON HIM SHALL NOT BE ASHAMED. ~ Romans 9:30-33

Romans 9 isn’t about predestination. It is about Israel and how God fulfilled his purpose even though Israel (at large) did not cooperate. The reference to Pharaoh is a part of this much larger context.


9 Remember the former things of old: for I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is none like me,

10 Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure… Isaiah 46:9-10

Open theism is the belief that God does not fully know the future because he has given man the freedom to choose. One website gave the following definition: Though omniscient, God does not know what we will freely do in the future.

Tim Challies, has an excellent blog post addressing this topic, and in it he covers the key points of open theism. Tim writes the following.

Open theism is characterized in several ways:

  1. God’s greatest attribute is love. God’s love so overshadows His other characteristics that He could never allow or condone evil or suffering to befall mankind.
  2. Man has libertarian free will. Man’s will has not been so effected by the Fall that he is unable to make a choice to follow God. God respects man’s freedom of choice and would not infringe upon it.
  3. God does not have exhaustive knowledge of the future. Indeed, He cannot know certain future events because the future exists only as possibility. God is unable to see what depends on the choices of free will agents simply because this future does not yet exist, so it unknowable. In this way open theists attempt to reconcile this doctrine with God’s ominiscience.
  4. God takes risks. Because God cannot know the future, He takes risks in many ways – creating people, giving them gifts and abilities, and so on. Where possibilities exist, so does risk.
  5. God learns. Because God does not know the future exhaustively, He learns, just as we do.
  6. God is reactive. Because He is learning, God is constantly reacting to the decisions we make.
  7. God makes mistakes. Because He is learning and reacting, always dealing with limited information, God can and does make errors in judgment which later require re-evaluation.
  8. God can change His mind. When God realizes He has made an error in judgment or that things did not unfold as He supposed, He can change His mind.

The most important thing to note is that God knows the future only as it is not dependent on human, free-will decisions. God does not know what any free-will agents (ie humans) will do, because those decisions do not yet exist and God cannot know what does not exist. God decided, in Creation, that He would limit Himself in this way in order to give complete freedom to human beings. Therefore, God does not know or control the future – He learns from our decisions and constantly adapts as necessary. He often needs to change His mind or re-evaluate His options as the future unfolds. (end of excerpt from the excellent article by Tim Challies)

Contrary to open theism, the Bible cites many references in which God declared future events long before they happened and the outcome of those events because of the choices made by individuals long before those individuals were born.

Multiple biblical prophecies testify that God is indeed knowledgeable beforehand of the choices individuals will make. If God knows in advance want any one person will chose, then he knows in advance what all people will choose, because he knows the hearts of all men. ~ Acts 1:24. 

Consider for a moment the Biblical record of the betrayal of Jesus by Judas, which was foretold hundreds of years before Judas was born.

Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me. ~ Psalm 41:9

Verily, verily, I say unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord; neither he that is sent greater than he that sent him. If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them. I speak not of you all: I know whom I have chosen: but that the scripture may be fulfilled, He that eateth bread with me hath lifted up his heel against me. ~ John 13:16-18

In John 17, Jesus praying regarding his disciples says the following:

While I was with them in the world, I kept them in thy name: those that thou gavest me I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the son of perdition; that the scripture might be fulfilled. ~ John 17:12

The son of perdition is a reference to Judas, and Jesus says he was lost so that the scripture might be fulfilled. This speaks clearly of God’s foreknowledge regarding Judas before he was born.

In John 6:64 we are told that Jesus knew from the beginning who it was who would betray him.

In Acts 1:16, the apostle Peter says, Men and brethren, this scripture must needs have been fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake before concerning Judas, which was guide to them that took Jesus.

Peter goes on to cite a text from Psalms in verse 20.

The apostle Peter wasn’t an open theists, because he believed the Holy Spirit had spoken through David, hundreds of years prior, regarding Judas.

There are many examples all throughout scripture of God’s foreknowledge of people and the choices they would make. John the Baptist is another example. Both Isaiah and Malachi foretold of John the Baptist.

The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight in the desert a highway for our God. ~ Isaiah 40:3

Then said they unto him, Who art thou? that we may give an answer to them that sent us. What sayest thou of thyself? He said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Esaias (Isaiah). ~ John 1:22-23

In Matthew 11, Jesus declared that John the Baptist was the coming of Elijah referred to by the prophet Malachi.

7 And as they departed, Jesus began to say unto the multitudes concerning John, What went ye out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken with the wind?

8 But what went ye out for to see? A man clothed in soft raiment? behold, they that wear soft clothing are in kings’ houses.

9 But what went ye out for to see? A prophet? yea, I say unto you, and more than a prophet.

10 For this is he, of whom it is written, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee. ~ John 11:7-10

All throughout the Bible we see over and over again, that God knows the future and he knows what people are going to do.

The very fact that God told us in advance about John the Baptist, Judas, those who would put Jesus to death, the beast, and false prophet along with many others testifies to the truth that God is all knowing.

God knew that many innocent children would be slaughtered by Herod when Jesus was a young child (Matthew 2:16-18), and God knew the disciples would be scattered when Jesus was arrested for it was prophesied in the Old Testament.

Jesus had made the following statment to his disciples: “You will all fall away, for it is written, ‘I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered.’ But after I am raised up, I will go before you to Galilee.”  ~ Mark 14:27-28

In response Peter boasted “Even though they all fall away, I will not” (Mark 14:29). Jesus then said the following to Peter:  “Truly, I tell you, this very night, before the rooster crows twice, you will deny me three times.” ~ Mark 14:30

Jesus knew that Peter was going to deny him three times before the rooster would crow twice the next morning, even though Peter was determined that he would never do such a thing.

But he said emphatically, “If I must die with you, I will not deny you.” And they all said the same. ~ Mark 14:31

Yet Jesus’s words came to pass, for after Peter had denied Jesus for the third time, the rooster crowed the second time just as Jesus had predicted.

And immediately the rooster crowed a second time. And Peter remembered how Jesus had said to him, “Before the rooster crows twice, you will deny me three times.” And he broke down and wept. ~ Mark 14:72

Jesus’s foreknowledge that Peter would deny him three times before the rooster crowed twice the next morning, testifies to the truth that God knows the choices we will make before we ever make them. Peter swore he would never deny Jesus, but he did, just as Jesus said he would.

The list goes on and on of things which the Bible testifies that God knew, in his foreknowledge, regarding people, choices, and events.

When God appeared to Abraham, he knew that Abraham’s descendants would be slaves in the land of Egypt (Genesis 15:13) even though Abraham was childless at the time.

God knew that Israel would choose to go after other gods and be exiled from the land of Israel, yet he still gave them the opportunities to repent by sending them the prophets.

Before Judah was taken captive by the Babylonians, God sent the prophet Jeremiah to call them to repentance. However, God knew they would not listen to Jeremiah.

Therefore thou shalt speak all these words unto them; but they will not hearken to thee: thou shalt also call unto them; but they will not answer thee. ~ Jeremiah 7:27

How would God know that Judah would not listen to Jeremiah if he did not know what choices people would make?

Also in Acts 22:18-21, Jesus appeared to the apostle Paul and told him to get out of Jerusalem because the Jews there would not receive his testimony concerning Jesus.

How would Jesus know this if he didn’t know what choices people would make?

In much the same way as Calvinism asserts that God makes the choices for us, taking the truth of the foreknowledge of God beyond the boundaries of scripture. Open theism makes a similar error at the other end of the spectrum.

This is precisely why it is so important not to label people. Someone reading one of my teachings refuting Calvinism could easily make the assumption that I am an open theists, which I am not. And someone reading my refutation of Open Theism could conclude I am a Calvinist. I am not.

If we’d simply read the Bible and allow it to speak for itself, we would see that God does not force anyone to choose or reject him, nor is God’s foreknowledge limited by man’s freedom of choice.


The claim of open theism is that God does not know what choices we will make in the future, but the scriptures testify that God both knows the future and can discern the thoughts and intents of the heart. The scriptures also testifies that God knows what choices people will make in the future as many prophecies in scripture reveal.

God can put the desire it into the heart of whomever he chooses to do his will.

For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his will, and to agree, and give their kingdom unto the beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled. ~ Revelation 17:17

Blessed be the Lord God of our fathers, which hath put such a thing as this in the king’s heart, to beautify the house of the Lord which is in Jerusalem… ~ Ezra 7:27

According to Ezra, God had put it into the heart of Artaxerxes, the king of Persia, to help the exiles rebuild the house of the Lord. God know ahead of time that he would do this, as is testified of in the book of Jeremiah, and if God knew he was going to do this, then God obviously knew the choice  King Artaxerxes would make regarding the house of the Lord in Jerusalem.

One only needs to allow the Bible to speak for itself and the theological legs on which open theism stand will collapse.   

The king’s heart is in the hand of the LORD, as the rivers of water: he turneth it whithersoever he will. ~ Proverbs 21:1


One video explaining open theism says, “there is a wide range of things that are not known by God, and cannot be known by God until they come about.” Yet Peter says to Jesus, “Lord, you know all things.” ~ John 21:17

O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding outFor who hath known the mind of the Lord? or who hath been his counsellor? Or who hath first given to him, and it shall be recompensed unto him again? For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things: to whom be glory for ever. Amen. ~ Romans 11:33-36


Open Theism claims that God doesn’t know all future events, that God can be surprised by man’s choices, and that God desires to learn and is thereby “taught” by our actions.

If is were true, sinful man becomes an instructor of the Creator, and that is sheer nonesense. Consider the following words of the aposlte Paul from Romans 11.

O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out! For who hath known the mind of the Lord? or who hath been his counsellor? Or who hath first given to him, and it shall be recompensed unto him again? For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things: to whom be glory for ever. Amen. ~ Romans 11:33-36

Now consider the words of the prophet Isaiah.

Who hath directed the Spirit of the Lord, or being his counselor hath taught him? With whom took he counsel, and who instructed him, and taught him in the path of judgment, and taught him knowledge, and shewed to him the way of understanding
Behold, the nations are as a drop of a bucket, and are counted as the small dust of the balance: behold, he taketh up the isles as a very little thing. And Lebanon is not sufficient to burn, nor the beasts thereof sufficient for a burnt offering. All nations before him are as nothing; and they are counted to him less than nothing, and vanity. To whom then will ye liken God? or what likeness will ye compare unto him? ~ Isaiah 40:13-18

If open theism were true, God would cease to be God who knows our hearts and our thoughts, and this would undermine everything taught in scripture regarding God’s judgment on the ungodly.

Consider the following from Jeremiah.

Hear, O earth: behold, I will bring evil upon this people, even the fruit of thier own thoughts, because they have not hearkened unto my words, nor to my law, but rejected it. ~ Jeremiah 6:18

Notice that God is rendering to the people “the fruit” of their own thoughts. God knew their thoughts, hence God knew the choices they would make.

In his instructions to the Corinthinas regarding the gifts of the Spirit, Paul says that prophecy reveals the secrets of men’s hearts.

And thus are the secrets of his heart made manifest; and so falling down on his face he will worship God, and report that God is in you of a truth. ~ 1 Corinthians 14:25

That God knows the secrets of our hearts speaks to the fact that God knows what is in our hearts.

For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any twoedged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart. Neither is there any creature that is not manifest in his sight: but all things are naked and opened unto the eyes of him with whom we have to do. ~ Hebrews 4:12-13

The Bible is very clear that God is not surprised by our choices, because God knows all things, including our thoughts. 

For if our heart condemn us, God is greater than our heart, and knoweth all things. ~ 1 John 3:20

In the day of judgment, God is going to reveal the secrets of men’s hearts when he judges them by Christ Jesus. 

In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ according to my gospel. ~ Romans 2:16

Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts: and then shall every man have praise of God. ~ 1 Corinthians 4:5

For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil. ~ Ecclesiastes 12:14

Consider God’s words to the ungodly:

How long shall they utter and speak hard things? and all the workers of iniquity boast themselves? They break in pieces thy people, O Lord, and afflict thine heritage. They slay the widow and the stranger, and murder the fatherless. Yet they say, The Lord shall not see, neither shall the God of Jacob regard it. Understand, ye brutish among the people: and ye fools, when will ye be wise? He that planted the ear, shall he not hear? he that formed the eye, shall he not seeHe that chastiseth the heathen, shall not he correct? he that teacheth man knowledge, shall not he know? The Lord knoweth the thoughts of man, that they are vanity. ~ Psalm 94:11

The scriptures repeatedly reveal that God knows what’s in mans hearts: For there is not a word in my tongue, but, lo, O Lord, thou knowest it altogether. ~ Psalm 139:4

And thou, Solomon my son, know thou the God of thy father, and serve him with a perfect heart and with a willing mind: for the Lord searcheth all hearts, and understandeth all the imaginations of the thoughts: if thou seek him, he will be found of thee; but if thou forsake him, he will cast thee off for ever. ~ 1 Chronicles 28:9

And Jesus knowing their thoughts said, Wherefore think ye evil in your hearts? ~ Matthew 9:4

But he knew their thoughts, and said to the man which had the withered hand, Rise up, and stand forth in the midst. And he arose and stood forth. ~ Luke 6:8

For I know their works and their thoughts: it shall come, that I will gather all nations and tongues; and they shall come, and see my glory. ~ Isaiah 66:18

And again, The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain. ~1 Corinthians 3:20

But he (Jesus), knowing their thoughts, said unto them, Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation; and a house divided against a house falleth. ~ Luke 11:17

All the ways of a man are clean in his own eyes; but the LORD weigheth the spirits. ~ Proverbs 16:2

That God has given man a free will, does not in any why contradict that God is all knowing.


TIm Challies, whose article I cited above read by following the link below:


Most of us have things we believe, but have never taken the time to tease out exactly what we mean by those things.

Allow me to give you an example.

Many Christians hold to the belief that humanity has a sinful nature. However not everyone means the same thing when they say “sin nature.”

Years ago, when I was learning from Word of Faith ministers, I was taught that sin nature means “the nature of the devil” and was taught that unregenerate man has the nature of the devil. It was taught that a person was either a child of God or a child of the devil.

One of the main texts for this ideology was the verse found in John 8 where Jesus told the religious Jews, “you are of your father the devil.”

It was taught that only those who are born again are the children of God and everyone else is a child of the devil, with a sinful nature. And since no one was born again until after the death and resurrection of Jesus, the natural conclusion was that all of humanity had the nature of the devil.

What came to my mind was things like this: What about Abraham? What about Moses? What about Daniel? What about John the Baptist? These men walked with God. They were holy men, and they lived before Jesus died and rose again.

So based on the testimony of scripture regarding all the old testament saints, it was completely untrue to say that all humanity had the nature of the devil.

Furthermore, I would ask myself the question, “Why did Jesus say ‘your Father in Heaven’ to the people to whom he ministered, if the devil was the father of everyone who wasn’t yet born again?”

The problem with terms like sin nature is that we all have ideas as to what is meant by them, and sometimes when people attempt to teach things like “sin nature” through the leans of a particular theological view, they violate the overall teachings of scripture.

One of the things I attempt to do as a Bible teacher is work out what we mean by certain words and phases.

At this point, there probably will be someone reading this who will peg me with pelagianism rather than processing what I am saying and what I am not saying.

Let’s continue.

Another definition of sin nature is that Adam’s sin was imputed to all humanity, but what does that specifically mean? Does the whole counsel of scripture support what we mean by it?

Now, we all know that the Bible teaches that “all have sinned and come short of the glory of God.” We all know that we all need a Savior. Sin is why we are estranged to God, but what exactly do we mean when we say Adam’s sin was imputed?

Was Adam’s personal act of disobedience imputed to every other human as their own personal sin? Well, there is not a single text in all of scripture that makes this claim.

According to the Bible, it was death that came on all through Adam’s transgression.

Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned… ~ Romans 5:12

The words “for that all have sinned” at the end of verse 12, is literally, “in whom all have sinned.” In Adam (in our fleshly carnal humanity) we have all sinned.

How then is sin imputed? According to the Bible, sin is imputed by the law. The apostle Paul makes this very clear in the book of Romans.

For until the law sin was in the world: but sin is not imputed when there is no law. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam’s transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come. ~ Romans 5:13-14

God gave the Law to Israel to impute sin. Through his covenant with Israel, God deliberately gave the Torah as the means of imputing sin, and concentrating the sins of all humanity in that one nation, so that he might bring an end to sin’s power through the cross. The Law, as the light of God, reveals what sin is and its effects on us all.

In Adam (though our union with him as his physical offspring) we all are sinners, not guilty of Adam’s transgression, but guilty of each of our own transgressions. The Law reveals to each of us our own sins. The Law does not reveal that we are all guilty of Adam’s personal act of disobedience.

When those who die without Christ stand before God in the Day of Judgment, God is not going to judge them according to what Adam did. God is going to judge them according to what they did. Every man will give an account for his own deeds.

It is the Law which imputes sin because the Law brings to light man’s frailty, man’s carnal desires, and man’s evil deeds which result from death which came on all through our union with Adam.


Romans 8:3 says Jesus came in the likeness of sinful flesh, not in sinful flesh. Jesus is the Son of God. He took on flesh and blood. He did not have sinful flesh, just as Adam did not have sinful flesh before he sinned.

According to the new testament, the body of Jesus is the offering for our sins (Hebrews 10:10). Jesus said he would give his flesh for the life of the world. ~ John 6:51-57

Under the old testament the sacrifices which foreshadowed Jesus had to be unblemished and holy.

Jesus redeemed us with his precious blood as of a lamb without spot or blemish (1 Peter 1:18-20). If Jesus’ body had not been holy and without sin, his blood could not have been holy. The blood of Jesus is holy because Jesus’ body was holy and because he was and is holy.

This is precisely why Jesus’ body did not decay in the tomb. The apostle Peter, referring to the body of Jesus in the tomb, said death could not hold Jesus because God would not allow his holy one to see corruption (Acts 2:27). Again, this is a reference to the body of Jesus in the tomb.

Jesus’ body was the fulfillment of the unleavened bread eaten by the people of Israel as they were delivered by the blood of the lamb. ~ Exodus 12

At the last supper, Jesus said to his disciples: “this is my body broken for you, and this is my blood shed for you.” ~ Luke 22:19-20

This memorial known as holy communion was given to us as an ordinance to observe until the coming of the Lord. In 1 Corinthians 11, Paul told the Corinthians that some of them were sick and some of them had died because they did not discern the body of the Lord. They were approaching the Lord’s table with irreverence.

Just as Jesus’ spiritual body (the church) is called to be holy, so his physical body was and is holy. Jesus was without sin in every respect.

Any concept that claims Jesus had sin in his body goes against the whole counsel of scripture and is based on a very flawed understanding the scriptures. Jesus is, was, and always will be holy.


Jesus performed miracles and healings while on earth in the role of “servant” anointed by God, but this in no way suggests that his nature changed.

The King and creator of the creation, humbled himself and ministered to his subjects as a servant, even though he was King. Those who came to him, having their eyes opened to his true identity, would often worship him.

Only God can be worshipped.

Jesus ministered to people, taking the role of servant of God, even though he was God’s own Son in essence (his nature never changed). His “role” (for a lack of better words) did.

While on earth, he ministered in the role of servant, he now ministers in the glory of his Kingship.

1. Jesus is, was, and always will be divine.

2. Jesus came into this world to serve, not to rule.

3. During his earthly ministry, he ministered as a servant.

4. His true divine identity was veiled in his human flesh.

5. When the spiritual eyes of those who sought God were opened, they understood that he was more than an ordinary man, and they often worshiped him, and reverenced him.

Jesus is the King who laid aside his kingship authority in Heaven, and he came to minister to humanity. He submitted to the authority of his Father, who anointed him to do his will.

Jesus obeyed the Father completely, giving his life as a ransom for our sins. When he had fulfilled all the will of God, by his redemptive work, the Father restored to him the glory which he had with the Father before the world was.

He was in the world, and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not. He came unto his own, and his own received him not. But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name: Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth. ~ John 1:11-14

For ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that, though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye through his poverty might be rich. ~ 2 Corinthians 8:9

And whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant: Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many. ~ Matthew 20:27-28

But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory: Which none of the princes of this world knew: for had they known it, they would not have CRUCIFIED THE LORD OF GLORY. ~ 1 Corinthians 1:7-8


Then they that were in the ship came and worshipped him, saying, of a truth thou art the Son of God. ~ Matthew 14:33

Have you ever considered that the disciples worshipped Jesus as the Son of God?

If Jesus had been an ordinary man, it would have been idolatry to worship him, but if it was acceptable with God that Jesus was worshipped, then he was more than a mere man when he walked this earth.

The disciples would not have worshipped Jesus as the Son of God if being the Son of God were a common thing as with others. Unlike others, Jesus is God’s own unique Son – the only begotten Son of God.

The apostle John says, the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.

Jesus was God with us ~ Matthew 1:23, and God manifested in the flesh ~ 1 Timothy 3:16. Yet his divinity was concealed by his humanity. However, for those who came to him searching for truth, it was revealed to them that Jesus is the Son of God!

The name Son of God, when applied to Jesus speaks of his divinity.

In his second epistle, the apostle Peter tells us the following:

For we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of his majesty. For he received from God the Father honor and glory, when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory, this is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. And this voice which came from heaven we heard, when we were with him in the holy mount. ~ 2 Peter 1:16-18

Peter, and the other disciples were eyewitnesses of his glory, and they testified that this man Jesus was more than an ordinary man: he is the Son of God.

As the Son, he his divine, and worthy of worship, for being the Son of God is a revelation of his majesty!

John the Baptist proclaimed: “I saw and bare record that this is the Son of God.” ~ John 1:34

If Jesus being the Son of God were not unique, there would be no need for John the Baptist to bear record of Jesus as such. When we examine the testimony of John about Jesus, we see that John declared that Jesus was more than an ordinary man.

John bare witness of him, and cried, saying, this was he of whom I spake, he that cometh after me is preferred before me: for he was before me. ~ John 1:15

John the Baptist proclaimed that Jesus was before him, even though Jesus came after him: this is a reference to the deity of Jesus Christ. John calls him Lord, saying, “I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of THE LORD, as said the prophet Esaias.” ~ John 1:23

The title Son of God carries a weight when applied to Jesus that it does not when applied to any other man. Jesus is not an ordinary man privileged to be called God’s child. Jesus is the Lord who came down for Heaven, and eternal life comes through believing he is the Son of God, i.e., believing he is divine!

Whosoever shall confess that Jesus is the Son of God, God dwelleth in him, and he in God. ~ 1 John 4:15

For whatsoever is born of God overcometh the world: and this is the victory that overcometh the world, even our faith. Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God? ~ 1 John 5:4-5

If we receive the witness of men, the witness of God is greater: for this is the witness of God which he hath testified of his Son. He that believeth on the Son of God hath the witness in himself: he that believeth not God hath made him a liar; because he believeth not the record that God gave of his Son. And this is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. He that hath the Son hath life; and he that hath not the Son of God hath not life. These things have I written unto you that believe on the name of the Son of God; that ye may know that ye have eternal life, and that ye may believe on the name of the Son of God. ~ 1 John 5:9-13

And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life. ~ 1 John 5:20